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Raw Materials for Steel

Raw Materials for Steel

Raw Materials for Steel 

Key raw materials needed in steelmaking include iron ore, coal, limestone and recycled steel (scrap). The two main steel production routes and their related inputs are:


The integrated steelmaking route, based on the blast furnace (BF) and basic oxygen furnace (BOF), uses raw materials including iron ore, coal, limestone and recycled steel. On average, this route uses 1,400 kg of iron ore, 770 kg of coal, 150 kg of limestone, and 120 kg of recycled steel to produce a tonne of crude steel.

The electric arc furnace (EAF) route, based on the EAF, uses primarily recycled steels and/or direct reduced iron (DRI) and electricity. On average, the recycled steel-EAF route uses 880 kg of recycled steel, 150 kg of coal and 43 kg of limestone to produce a tonne of crude steel.

Other metals used in smaller amounts :-

  • In all or most steels : manganese, silicon

  • In some steels : nickel, chromium, zinc and tin

  • Minor alloying elements : molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten
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